History of copyright


The beginning of copyright

Although there was a work in large numbers from ancient times, he was not conscious of the necessity of protecting them. However, in order to spread them all over the world, the necessity for mass production came out, as religious books, such as the Buddhist scripture and the Bible, spread. The influence of such a historical backdrop improved letterpress printing technology. With letterpress printing technology, the East is progressing and the letterpress printing machine was invented in the 15th century Germany. It was in the situation where the copy of a book becomes easy under the influence, and it has not protected worth of a book. Then, the necessity for the copyright which protects a work comes out, and the system in connection with copyright, etc. began to be born. The following two are typical in the system about this copyright of those days.
- The Ann method ... It was set by Princess British Ann for the purpose of copyright protection in 1710. The law in connection with publication was enacted under this influence in other countries.
- Berne Convention ... It is the treaty which the representatives of each country gathered in Switzerland in 1886, and was contracted for the purpose of international protection of copyrights. This treaty was published in 1887 (effect, such as law and a rule, should occur). The principle of Berne Convention
[?T] The same right as nationals is secured also to the people and company of a partner country.
[?U] The work made before treaty affiliation is also protected among the countries which joined in the treaty.
[?V] Copyright is materialized at the same time it is made by talks, such as a procedure special to copyright being materialized.

A U.S. copyright problem

After this, it became a problem in history that the United States does not join in Berne Convention. The United States had contracted the treaty of pan American with the countries in Central America. The United States and the countries in Central America had applied the system principle in the treaty. That is, copyright needed [ in the United States or the countries in Central America ] a formal procedure at the rule of law to be protected. Since the method of generating of copyright differs between a system principle and an immethodical principle, protection of international copyright does not follow them easily. Then, in order to advance protection of international copyright smoothly, the Universal Copyright Convention was made in Switzerland in 1952, and three required agreements were made. The Universal Copyright Convention is an international treaty in connection with the protection of copyrights which the United States took the lead and was materialized in 1952.

The principle of the Universal Copyright Convention

[?T] The same right as nationals is secured also to the people and company of a partner country.
[?U?n It is not necessary to secure the work before joining in the Universal Copyright Convention according to the treaty.]
[?V] C mark (copyright mark) is displayed. C mark displays the year and date which the author's name and work released on a legible position. There is no legal effect in C mark.

??Page Top